430. A hundred and forty and four thousand, sealed out of every tribe [of the sons] of Israel.- That this signifies all who are in truth from good, and therefore in the church of the Lord, is evident from the signification of "a hundred and forty and four thousand," as denoting all things, and because it is stated of those who are in truths from good, of which signification we shall speak presently; and from the signification of the tribes of Israel, as denoting those who are in truths from good, and who are therefore in the church of the Lord, for tribes signify truths from good, and Israel signifies the church. That the tribes of Israel have this signification, will be seen in the following article. The reason why "a hundred and forty and four thousand" signifies all things and all persons, and is stated of truths from good, is, that this number arises out of the number twelve, which signifies all things and all persons, and is used in reference to truths from good. For the larger numbers, and those formed from the smaller, have the same signification as the smaller numbers and the simple ones from which they result by multiplication. Upon this fact see Arcana Coelestia (n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973). For example, a hundred and forty-four, as well as a hundred and forty-four thousand, signify the same as twelve, for a hundred and forty-four is the result of twelve, multiplied into itself, and 144,000 of 12,000 multiplied into twelve.*
 There are simple numbers whose signification is higher than others, and from these the larger numbers derive their significations, namely, the numbers two, three, five, and seven. Two signifies union, and is used in reference to good; three signifies what is full, and is used in reference to truths; five signifies much and some, and seven signifies what is holy. From the number two the numbers 4, 8, 16, 400, 800, 1600, 4000, 8000, 16,000 result, and these have the same signification as two, because they result from this simple number multiplied into itself, and then multiplied into 10. From the number three result 6, 12, 24, 72, 144, 1440, 144,000, and these also have the same signification as three, because they arise from this simple number by multiplication. From the number five arise 10, 50, 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000, and these also have the same signification as the number five, because they are the result of multiplication. From the number seven arise 14, 70, 700, 7000, 70,000, and these results have a similar signification. Because the number three signifies what is full, and full denotes all, therefore from this the number twelve derives its signification of all things and all persons. The reason why it is used of truths from good is, because it is the result of three multiplied into four, and three is used of truths and four of good, as stated above.
 He who does not know that the number twelve signifies all things, and that the numbers which arise from it by multiplication have a similar signification, and that each tribe signifies something that is a universal and an essential of the church, merely knows that only 12,000 out of every tribe of Israel were sealed, and that these therefore were received, or were to be received into heaven, when yet by the 12,000 are not meant 12,000, nor by the tribes named there the tribes of Israel; but by 12,000 are meant all, and by the tribes of Israel, those who are in truths from good, and therefore all who form the church of the Lord in whatever part of the earth they may be. Every one who thinks intelligently may understand that such things are signified; for where are those tribes now, and where were they when John wrote this? Were they not, except the tribe of Judah, dispersed throughout a large part of the globe? And where is known to no one. And yet it is said that they were to be sealed, in order that they might be introduced by the Lord into heaven, and be with Him, as is clear in the Apocalypse (chap. xiv. 1, 3, 4). Besides, it is well known that eleven of the tribes there named were banished from the land of Canaan because of their idolatries and other abominations; similarly the Jewish nation, whose character is described in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem (n. 248). It is evident therefore that 12,000 does not mean 12,000, nor do tribes mean the tribes of Israel, but all who are in truths from good, thus all who are of the church of the Lord. This will be further seen from the signification of each tribe in the spiritual sense; for each tribe signifies something that is a universal or an essential of the church, in which those are who belong to the church. The universal of each has reference also to truths from good, and these are manifold. For all who are in the heavens differ from one another in regard to good, and therefore in regard to truth, because every living truth in a man and in an angel is from good, and is according to it. Besides, all those who are of the church of the Lord are in truths from good, for those who are in truths and not in good, are not of the church; since as was just stated, every living truth in a man and in an angel is from good. Concerning this see above (n. 6, 59, 136, 242, 286, 292); and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem (n. 11-27). That goods and truths thence are of infinite variety, may be seen in Heaven and Hell (n. 56, 71, 405, 418, 486, 588), and in the small work The, Last Judgment (n. 13); also in Arcana Coelestia (n. 684, 690, 3241, 3267, 3470, 3519, 3744-3746, 3804), 3986, 4067, 4149, 4263, 5598, 6917, 7236, 7833, 7836, 9002. The reason why goods and the truths from them are of infinite variety, is because every angel, and every man in whom is the church, is his own good, and consequently his own truth; therefore the whole heaven is arranged according to the affections that pertain to love to the Lord, and to charity towards the neighbour, and faith thence; and all good pertains to those affections.
 That the number 144,000, or the number 12,000 multiplied into twelve, signifies all truths from good, in regard to their classes and species in their entirety, is evident from the use of the number 144 - which results from twelve multiplied into twelve-in other parts of the Apocalypse, where the city, New Jerusalem, is described by measurements in numbers. Concerning the dimensions of its wall, it is said,
"He measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an angel" (Apoc. xxi. 17).
The city Jerusalem here signifies the New Church to be established by the Lord, and its doctrine; therefore, all the things mentioned, as the wall, the gates, and the foundations, mean such things as relate to the church consequently spiritual thing. And because the church and its doctrine are described in the sense of the letter by the city Jerusalem, and a city admits of measurement, therefore the spiritual things of that church are described by measurements in numbers, and its wall by the number 144, or twelve multiplied into twelve, by which number are signified truths from good in their whole extent, for a wall signifies truths defending against falsities and evils. That this number has such a signification, is plain from the statement that the measure of 144 cubits is the measure of a man, that is of an angel
No one can understand what this involves, unless it be known that measure, in the spiritual sense, has the same signification as number, namely, the quality of the thing treated of; and that man signifies the reception of truth from spiritual affection, that is, from good and intelligence thence. The signification of "an angel" is similar. For a man is an angel when he is in truths from good; he also becomes an angel after death. The number 144,000 has the same signification. For a larger or smaller number, if from the same origin, has a similar signification, a larger number being used when a great multitude is concerned, or when it embraces many classes at the same time, as in the case of 144,000, which embraces all the classes of truth from good, signified by twelve thousand sealed out of every tribe; and as is the case with the measure of the wall, which is said to be 144 cubits, because it includes both the gates and the foundations, which are twelve in number.
 Concerning the gates and the foundations of the New Jerusalem, it is said, "Having a wall great and high, having twelve gates, and above the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes [of the sons] of Israel. And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb." And the foundations consisted of twelve precious stones (Apocalypse xxi. [12, 14] 19-21). Will not he who knows that the New Jerusalem means a new church, be able to see that the number twelve so frequently mentioned means that chief and primary thing from which the church exists? And the chief and primary constituent of the church is truth from good, for everything pertaining to the church is from that, since truth pertains to its doctrine and good to life according to doctrine. But the particular signification of the gates and the foundations will be given in the explanation of that chapter.
 Because that number signifies all things, and is used in reference to truths from good, and the New Jerusalem signifies a new church, therefore the dimensions of the city itself are also stated in the following words by the same number multiplied,
"And the city lieth four square, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs the length and the breadth and the height of it are equal" (Apoc. xxi. 16).
What is signified in the spiritual sense by length, breadth and height, will be also explained hereafter. The City, in that sense, means the doctrine of the church; and by 12,000 [furlongs] are meant all its truths from good.
 The number twelve is also used of the fruits of the trees which were about the river in the following words, "In the midst of the street of it, and on this side of the river and on that side, was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruits, and yielding its fruit every month" (Apoc. xxii. 2). Since truths of doctrine are signified by the streets of the city, since intelligence is signified by the river going forth thence, perception of truth from good from the Lord by the tree of life, and good from which are truths by fruits, it is therefore clear that twelve signifies truths from good, by means of which there is intelligence and from which the church exists.
 Because a representative church was to be established with the sons of Jacob, it was therefore provided by the Lord that he should have twelve sons (see Gen. xxix. 32-35; xxx. 1-25; xxxv. 22-26), in order that collectively they might represent all things of the church, and individually something in particular; consequently twelve tribes sprang from them (Gen. xlix. 28), and these also signify all things of the church, while each tribe signifies some essential of the church. It is therefore said in what now follows that there were 12,000 sealed out of every tribe, by whom are signified all those who are in that essential of the church, or all those who are in that kind of truth from good; for truth from good makes the church with all, truth being of doctrine, and good of life, as stated above. What truth from good is, and its quality, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem (n. 24).
 Because the twelve tribes named after the twelve sons of Jacob represented the church, and everything belonging to it, therefore the number twelve, on account of such signification, was used in connection with various subjects. For example, it is said that the princes of Israel were twelve in number (Numb. i. 44); that these twelve princes brought to the dedication of the altar twelve silver chargers, twelve silver bowls, twelve golden spoons, twelve bullocks, twelve rams, twelve lambs, and twelve goats (vii. 84, 87). By each of the things which they brought are signified such things as relate to truths from good. So also twelve men were sent to explore the land of Canaan (Deut. i. 23); for the land of Canaan signifies the church. Also twelve precious stones were set in the breast- plate of judgment, or in the Urim and Thummim (Exodus xxviii. 21; xxxix. 14); precious stones signify truths from good. Again, twelve cakes were placed upon the table in two rows, which were called the bread of faces (Lev. xxiv. 5, 6); the bread signifies the good of love, and the table its reception, so also truth in general, because this is the recipient of good. Again, Moses built an altar under Mount Sinai, and erected twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel (Exod. xxiv. 4); for the altar signifies the good of the church, and the pillars, its truths; therefore by the altar and the twelve pillars are signified all truths from good, by means of which the church exists.
 So also twelve men carried twelve stones out of the midst of the Jordan, and set them up in Gilgal, that they might be for a memorial among the sons of Israel. Twelve stones were also placed in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests stood who bare the ark of the covenant (Josh. iv. 1- 9, 20). The Jordan in the Word signifies introduction into the church; the stones carried thence, and those [set up] in the midst of the river, signify the truths of the church, by means of which introduction takes place. Elijah also took twelve stones, and built an altar (I Kings xviii. 31, 32); for an altar signifies the good of the church, and stones signify its truths.
 So again,
Moses chose twelve thousand of the sons of Israel, to fight against Midian under the command of Phinehas, and they returned with great spoil, without the loss of a single man (Numb. xxxi. 5, 6, 49).
Midian signifies those who are in the knowledges of truth, but still not in a life agreeable to them, and therefore twelve thousand were sent against him; the great spoil taken from them, has the same signification as the raiment, the silver, and gold, which the sons of Israel took from the Egyptians (Exod. iii. 22; xii. 35, 36); and similarly the unjust mammon, of which the Lord told His disciples to make to themselves friends (Luke xvi. 9), which means the knowledges of truth, which they possess in doctrine and not in life.
 Solomon also placed the brazen sea which he made, upon twelve oxen (1 Kings vii. 25, 44). The brazen sea signifies truth from good; the water in it, truth; and the brass of which the sea was made, good; while the twelve oxen signify all goods and the truths thence upon which they are founded. Also Solomon made a throne of ivory, with six steps up to it, and twelve lions standing upon them on both sides (1 Kings x. 18- 20). The throne of Solomon signified judgment, this being from truths that are from good; it also represented Divine Truth from Divine Good. Lions signify the truths of heaven and of the church in their power; and twelve, all, as may be seen above (n. 253:6, 7).
 It is said concerning Ishmael, that he should be blessed and should increase, and that twelve princes should be born of him (Gen. xvii. 20; xxv. 16). This was said of Ishmael, because he signified the external church with all its truths from good. It is said of Elisha that he was found by Elijah ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen, and he among the twelve; and that then he cast his mantle upon him (I Kings xix. 19). This was done and said because Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, in which are all truths from good; therefore when that representation was transferred from Elijah to Elisha, signified by his casting his mantle upon him, Elisha was seen ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen, and he himself among the twelve, which signifies the formation of the church by means of truths from good from the Word, as may be seen above (n. 395:4).
It is said in the Apocalypse that a woman was seen clothed with the sun, the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars" (xii. 1). This was seen because a woman signifies the church, and stars signify cognitions of truth; the good of these is signified by a crown, and intelligence by the head.
 The twelve apostles of the Lord, also, have a similar representation to that of the twelve tribes of Israel; collectively they represented the church, and individually, some essential of the church; for this reason they were twelve in number. From these considerations it is evident whence and why it is said that the New Jerusalem, by which are signified the church and its doctrines, had twelve gates, and above the gates twelve angels, and names written, which are those of the twelve tribes of Israel; that the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb (Apoc. xxi. 12, 14). Here by twelve angels, twelve tribes, and twelve apostles, are not meant angels, tribes and apostles, but all things of the church. Also, it is said that the apostles shall sit upon twelve thrones, and shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. xix. 28; Luke xxii. 30). This does not mean that the apostles shall sit upon twelve thrones, and judge the twelve tribes of Israel, but that the Lord alone shall judge everyone by means of the Divine Truth from the Divine Good, as may be seen above (n. 9, 206, 253:6, 270, 297, 333).
 He who does not know that twelve signifies all things, cannot know the interior truth signified by the twelve baskets of fragments that remained over from the five loaves and the two fishes, with which the Lord fed five thousand men, besides women and children (Matt. xiv. 15-21; Mark vi. 37-44; Luke ix. 12-17; John vi. 9-13); in these places every particular, even to the very numbers, is significative. The five thousand men, besides women and children, signify all those of the church who are in truths from good; the men, those in truths; and the women and children, those who are in good; the loaves signify the goods, and the fishes the truths of the natural man; and by their eating and being filled is signified spiritual nourishment from the Lord; the twelve baskets of fragments signify the cognitions of truth and good thence in perfect abundance and fulness.
 Because twelve signifies all things, and is used in reference to truths from good, which make the church therefore the Lord, when He was twelve years old, left [His] father and mother, and tarried in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions (Luke ii. 42-46); by which is meant the initiation and introduction of His Human into all things of heaven and of the church. Therefore also when found He said, "Wist ye not that I must be about My Father's business?" (verse 49). Since the number twelve signifies all things, and is used in reference to truths from good, therefore the Lord said, "Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not" (John xi. 9). Day signifies enlightenment in truths from good, and the twelve hours of the day signify all things of truth from good, and walking signifies to live. Therefore these words, in the spiritual sense, signify that he who lives in any kind of truth that is from good is in enlightenment, and does not wander into falsities. Because twelve signifies all things therefore the Lord said, "Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He shall cause to assist Me more than twelve legions of angels?" (Matt. xxvi. 53). The twelve legions of angels mean the whole heaven, and more than these signify the Divine Omnipotence.
From these things the signification of a hundred and forty-four thousand out of every tribe is now evident, namely, all who are in truths from good. The twelve thousand out of every tribe mean all who are in that kind of truth from good which is signified by the particular tribe mentioned. Therefore neither twelve thousand are meant nor those who were of the tribes of Judah, Reuben, Gad, Asher, Napthali, Manasseh, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin. Moreover, it should be understood that all these, or the hundred and forty- four thousand, mean those who were taken up into heaven before the Last Judgment. But by those afterwards mentioned from verse 9 to the end of this chapter, are meant those who were reserved by the Lord until the Last Judgment, and who were then first taken up into heaven; concerning, these see above (n. 391:1, 392:3, 394, 397). For those who were in truths from good were all received into heaven before the Judgment; but those who were in good, and not yet in truths, were reserved, and in the meantime instructed and prepared for heaven. We shall speak further of these in the following pages. Those taken up into heaven before the Judgment, are also meant by those of whom it is said in the Apocalypse, chapter xiv. 1: "The Lamb standing on the mount Zion, and with him a hundred and forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads." It is further said of these, that "no man could learn that song, but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were bought from the earth. These are they which were not defiled with women, for they are virgins bought from among men, being the first-fruits unto God and unto the Lamb" (verses 3, 4). The same are also meant by those who are of the first resurrection; and the rest those who are of the second resurrection (Apoc. xx. 4-6). * The text in the photolithograpy copy is "ac 144,000 ex 12,000 in 12,000;" and further on we find "quo numerus 144,000 seu numerus 12,000 in se multiplicati significet,: etc. There is an obvious error here, and we have accordingly followed the editor of the American Latin edition, who has "ac 144,000 ex 12,000 in 12."